Test Automation Framework and its types

By | July 26, 2021

What is automation framework?

It is set procedures that are build to support software automation testing. It is more like a skeleton for automation testing.

To build the automation for any project we need to build the directory structure for it.

Structure of automation framework

  • Test Project: the project that needs to be tested is mentioned first.
  • Common libraries: we need to maintain a separate folder that consists of the library files.
  • Configuration folder: here all the configurations like IP address, password etc is stored.
  • Test data file: this is maintained such that in case any test data changes it won’t affect the test case.
  • Test scripts
  • Logs: all the log files are maintained this folder.
  • Result: the actual and expected results are stored here. If any records or screen shot are there then those are kept here.
  • Object repository: all the objects recognized are stored here.
  • Reusable functions/modules
  • Binaries: binaries related to data base, automation tools are stored here.
  • Documents
  • Images
  • Tools
  • Recovery: when data loss happens and we need to recover then those files are stored here.

Features and benefits of test automation framework Features:

  • Easy to use.
  • Easy to maintain.
  • Unattended test execution.
  • Handling exceptional errors, in case if the test crashes we can recover the files.
  • Detailed logs are maintained.
  • Consists of test results and reports.
  • Benefits:
  • Reusability.
  • Reduced efforts.
  • Avoids duplicates since folders are well structured.

Types of automation framework

  1. Linear framework record and playback
  2. Modular framework.
  3. Data driven automation framework.
  4. Keyword driven automation framework.
  5. Hybrid automation framework.

Linear framework record and playback

  • They are easy to use.
  • Automation testers make use of records and playback.
  • Testers insert the check point for verification.
  • It can playback the recorded scripts.


  • It is very simple to use.
  • It is easy to learn.
  • It creates the test cases faster.
  • It does not require any tool expertise to start this automation framework.


  • No reusability since every code is together in the scripts and not separated.
  • It is hard coded.
  • The maintenance of it is hard.

Modular framework

  • It creates test cases in the module wise or function wise.
  • It breaks down large functions into smaller, reusable functions.
  • For this type of framework one must have prominent programming skills.
  • It works on the concept of abstraction and encapsulation.


  • It enables the reuse of codes.
  • The scripts are easy to maintain.
  • The cost is less due to reusability of codes.


  • It requires good programming skills.
  • The test data are hard coded with scripts.

Test driven automation framework

  • Both the test scripts and test data are separated
  • Test data can be used through test scripts by external files such as csv.


  • No impact to test scripts when there is change to test data.
  • We can test wide variety of test data.


  • High maintenance is required.
  • One needs to have high programming skills to operate this.

Keyword driven automation framework

  • This framework is also called as table driven.
  • We need to create a table for data.
  • We need to create a keyword.
  • We have to write the code for each keyword, and be reused in the forms for keyword.


  • Both data and keywords are reusable.
  • Low maintenance is required.
  • These are easy to use.
  • No programming skills required.


  • The cost of implementation is higher in this.
  • Requires good understanding of the automation scripts development.


Is a combination of all the other frame works.

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